Monday, April 27, 2015

Vectors and Fomites keeping - both at bay

What you carry is important - Keep It Clean

Source: Wikipedia
When we think of biosecurity on poultry farms we mostly think of live animals that could transmit a disease to our flocks.  These are "Vectors" that are carriers of different diseases that may not affect them but could bring losses to your farm.  Wild birds, rodents and wild mammals can harbor or transmit diseases to birds.  It is also the reason most poultry farms are single species so that chickens will not spread diseases to turkeys, and ducks to pretty much the other two.

A "Fomite" on the other hand is a inanimate object that can also transfer diseases mechanically.  Shoes and boots, tools and other equipment moved from house to house also needs to be cleaned and disinfected in order to keep infections to a minimum.  Even flies by the nature of their travels are considered fomites as the move from manure to bird.  These too should be limited on the farm as much as possible.

To to control the first thing to do is to clean the object of any obvious dirt, grime and manure.  Secondly, use a good disinfectant to reduce further any lingering viruses and bacteria remaining on the clean object.  A log sheet should be kept for farm
equipment that is loaned out to other farms or is rented to keep a trail of exposure to a minimum.  And a local car wash is a farmers friend as trucks move from farm to farm.  By staying on top of this task, you help reduce your chance of an exposure to disease.

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Making Easter eggs and enjoying it...

Being Safe while enjoying the real thing

Easter is a time for most to come together and share a meal with those we care for.  I give thanks at this time for many things, but I also thank those who produce the food I eat.  Whether large or small, farmers do feed most of us.  So if you are lucky enough to have birds in your care and production enough to share, thank you!

I still like to boil eggs for Easter.  Dyeing eggs is one fun thing a family can do, and there are many ways to color eggs.   I prefer to use the off stove method of cooking eggs.  Cover eggs in water till at least an inch covers the eggs.  Bring these to just a boil, and then cover and take off the heat to stand for 10-12 minutes.  A little longer for larger eggs, a little less for smaller eggs.  Use older eggs, as it makes them easier to peel.  For dye I have used the box kits, food dye for cake making, along with yellow onion skins, beet juice, and other veggie pigments.  As long as the dyes are edible, they can be used.  A little vinegar helps with the staining process, and setting the color.  For those in a pinch, buy brown eggs or eggs from a farm with different colored breeds.  These naturally pigmented eggs will also be a hit on the bunny trail.

If you are going to hunt with real eggs away from home, the secret is the cooler and ice packs you carry the eggs in.  This will keep the eggs cold.  Keep eggs in their cartons and in the cooler until just before the kids are to hunt for eggs.  We did this in the morning while it was still cool, and then pop the real eggs back in the cooler just after the kids have found them.  Any eggs with broken shells should be thrown away.  

Eggs are a versatile food. I always enjoy egg salad sandwiches after Easter with my pigmented hard cooked eggs.  Folks around the lunch table would marvel at what I am eating, but are envious when they try my egg salad with spicy brown mustard and a touch of red onion for crunch.  Enjoy.

Friday, February 13, 2015

Keeping Warm Thoughts in Cold Weather

Taking Precautions When the Forecast is South of Freezing.

A reminder to all poultry and livestock caretakers and food processors to monitor building and other environmental spaces that would be sensitive to cold. 

  • Temporary windbreaks surrounding nursery areas should be considered if in high wind velocity area.  Smaller animals are more temperature sensitive.  Heat Lamps and other hanging heaters should be hung by a chain or cable to prevent falling into bedding.
  •  Water meters should be checked closely to spot broken or plugged (frozen) plumbing. 
  • Product refrigeration equipment needs to be checked to ensure continued operation even when exposed to outdoor conditions if product needs to be cooled. 
  •  Rod conveyors and other non-heated areas of egg farms should be cleared at the end of day to eliminate thermal checks. 
  • Diesel supplies on farm should also be checked for jelly formation, most especially backup generators and tractors.  
  • Heaters, clothing, hand warmers, and other safety equipment for workers should be considered in areas with frostbite exposure warnings
  •  Product holding areas should be monitored so that product awaiting processing is kept at optimal temperatures. 
  • For small flock enclosures partial wrapping with plastic film may help prevent wind from penetrating the coop.  Be sure adequate ventilation takes place after the wrap.  Loose hay and straw may help birds survive cold environments by burying themselves partially into the bedding. 

Tuesday, November 11, 2014

On-Farm Biosecurity a Layered Approach

Attitude is the prime ingredient
Graphic: G. Martin
With cooler weather we begin to close housing and reduce ventilation levels. This allows moisture to build up in houses, and sickness can ensue if you don’t double your efforts in biosecurity. The key to becoming a bio-secure location is adopting an attitude of following good biosecurity protocols; every time, every day on the farm. Cutting corners or simply not following a biosecurity protocols opens up an opportunity for disease to invade your location.

To have a good biosecurity program, think about a layered approach. I like to define that as Physical, Chemical and Logical layers to the program. Physical barriers like personal protective equipment (PPE) and solid housing helps keep us from being a vector to flocks we visit. Chemical barriers include detergents and germicides that assist in cleaning and disinfection that help us reduce the chance of a fomite (inanimate objects) from spreading disease on the farm. Logical barriers are steps we take to help partition and reduce exposure time to birds. So the old adage of “visit young animals to oldest animals, sick animals last” will still work for a good biosecurity program.

As with any poultry management program, good documentation is an important part to never pass up on. To log exposures to your flock, document all visitors to your location. Small farms can use a “guest book” to help log visitors. This will give you a running history over time since some diseases take time to develop from exposure. Log all shared equipment that enters your housing as well. This is very important for farms that are not cleaning each brood in meat type birds. Biosecurity is up to you.


Sunday, October 19, 2014

Setting the Record Straight on Poultry Production

Just because it is seen in public doesn't always mean it is correct...

Many times I will be asked "does this really happen in the poultry industry or on farms?" when folks read something online or see it on TV.  At times our industry will add to the confusion in their advertising to gain an advantage over their competitors by suggesting improper practices.  Once we discuss the real issue and explain the truth, then many folks will say that this make sense.  Some of the questions I get:

Don't you feed hormones to poultry? No, it is against the law to give poultry and swine hormones.  And the USDA has strict rules in public statements made when making claims about its use in animal production.  Hormone therapy was outlawed back in the 1950's for poultry.  To properly administer hormones to poultry you would have to pick up and inject a bird.  This would add time, cost and stress to a flock.  Because of breed selection, nutrition, health and management advances it was long ago realized that hormone therapy was not really needed.  So, if you hear a claim "we don't use hormones" you have to ask yourself why do they wish to perpetuate the myth?

All the birds are produced on "factory farms"  In my thirty years of work with poultry I have not heard a shop whistle in a poultry house.  It is ironic since most of our common consumer goods and foods are produced with some type of economy of scale.  Toothpaste, tires, lumber, gasoline, vitamins, clothing & shoes, catchup, ice cream, mayo, chocolate, milk, humus, tofu, bread, TV, telephones, and diapers are all made in - you guessed it, a factory.  So why can't a farmer gain some advantage by sizing his enterprises to pay for workers and equipment that are more efficient than those found on smaller farms?  A large six row combine can move through corn fields faster than a two row (yes some still in service) model when time is important.  So as a whole, family farms have grown in size, yet still stay a family farm.  There are discounts given to the farmer who can buy in bulk and single drop shipments, just like what is done at WalMart and Trader Joe's purchasing & distribution hubs.  The other alternative that does work as well is very small farms that have few employees or other inputs.  Many of these are supported with outside help and inputs to keep them in business.  Pricing for the smaller farms is critical to their sustainability.

Brown eggs are better than white eggs  If you are using commercial brown egg layers, there is enough white egg layer bloodline in the bird to make them almost indistinguishable with exception of feather & shell color.  Shell color is one of the last things added to the egg, and unless you are eating the shells, you are throwing out the only thing that is different.  If you think I am kidding, soak a piece of brown shell in a cup of vinegar.  Chances are You would see the brown layer dissolve leaving a white shell behind.   Feed has a bigger impact on egg flavor characteristics, so some claims regarding feeding are plausible.  So why are brown eggs more at the store?  The birds are a little larger and eat a little more feed, so costs are a little higher for these eggs.  I like the color of brown eggs so I will buy a dozen or so every year.

Chicken is just full of antibiotics!  Wow!  This misconception is tough simply because yes, antibiotics are used in animal production.  I can also say that humans use antibiotics as well.  If you were sick with a bacterial infection, wouldn't you want to use an antibiotic?  Well, farms both large and small will use antibiotics to treat birds that are sick due to bacterial infection.  Birds that are being treated can not be used for food.  There are strict laws on the withdrawal of all therapies before birds are harvested for food.  Antibiotics use on the poultry farm is normally in consultation with health authorities to ensure a positive result with the lowest use of drugs.  So are there antibiotics in the food?  No, not if they are following the rules.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Poultry IPM Really Counts !

Follow Sound IPM and save work!

Integrated pest management (IPM) uses a set methodology to help control pests on the farm.  By looking for pests and counting (index) them you are seeing each week if controls are
Source: Sergei Frolov / Wikimedia Commons.
actually working.  Environmental controls, especially water spillage in the poultry house is critical to good fly control.
  Be sure all waterers are adjusted properly to the size of the bird you are feeding.  Check for any leaks in the system.  Dry any wet areas in the house.  And, pick up any spilled feed eggs or any other materials that will attract flies.

If fly control is needed, consider using cultural controls to help control fly breeding in the house.  The addition of temporary drying fans to move or stir air in the house may speed manure drying.  Mechanical methods, such as fly paper and traps is a non toxic control that does not breed resistance into the fly population.  Biological controls can be deployed such as wasps and beetles that prey on the fly at certain points of the fly life cycle.

If considering chemical controls, be sure to read and understand the label for the material being considered for use.  Is spraying near poultry an acceptable use on the label?  If not apparent consider consulting a licensed pest control applicator or extension educator for your particular state for guidance.  It is important to rotate between classes of pesticides to help reduce pesticide resistance.  Apply to lower walls and posts where flies will emerge as they hatch.  Use baits indoors near birds to help reduce adults in the house.

Lastly, before spreading or selling poultry manure, make a final assessment to see if any flies are active in the manure that  is to be removed.  This will help keep the spread of flies in the area to a minimum.  Properly spread manure in the correct climate will dry down quickly to a point that will no longer support fly breeding.

By following good IPM controls, pests can be minimized on the farm.

Friday, April 25, 2014

Watch what you eat, let your grass grow

Allow grass to catch up before heavy grazing

photo: Live Springs Farm
With the advent of Spring, many organic & small flock farms are looking to release their birds outside.  Be aware that while your birds may be hungry, the plants may not be ready to grow to sustain them.  This in turn will then create bare spots on your range.  Allow your range areas to "spruce up" and grow to about 4" or longer prior to release.  This will allow a healthy root to sustain grazing by most classes of poultry.  Practice good range rotation when grazing to allow the grass a chance to catch up.  Move on range conditions rather than time for optimal results.  Also maintain feeders as a backup to slower growing spring fields.